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A. Purpose

This Section establishes requirements for vehicle and bicycle parking consistent with the objectives of the general plan and a balanced transportation system to promote public safety and environmental quality. These regulations are intended to:

1. Ensure sufficient off-street vehicle and bicycle parking facilities by establishing parking requirements for land uses.

2. Reduce the visual impact of mass “seas of parking” by distributing spaces around clusters of buildings.

3. Reduce excessive off-street parking by encouraging the shared use of vehicular use areas.

4. Promote pedestrian safety by separating vehicular use areas from pedestrian areas.

5. Encourage safe, convenient, and efficient design of parking spaces, circulation, and access areas.

6. Improve air quality by requiring paving of vehicular use areas.

7. Promote the enhancement of the community identity and the appearance of Town roadways and development areas.

8. The Town of Oro Valley, in keeping with the Federal Clean Air Act, wishes to encourage the use of alternative transportation modes such as the bicycle. Reducing the number of vehicular parking spaces in favor of bicycle parking spaces will help attain the standards of the Federal Clean Air Act, reduce impervious surfaces, and save on land and development costs.

B. Applicability

The provisions of this Section apply to:

1. New Development

2. New Uses Replacing Existing Uses

Whenever the use of an existing development is changed to a new use which requires more parking spaces under this Section than were required for the prior use, additional parking spaces shall be provided in accordance with the requirements of this Section. No occupancy permit shall be issued until the Planning and Planning and Zoning Administrator has approved the parking requirements for the new use.

3. Expansions

All projects that propose 25 percent or more cumulative addition or structural modifications such as changes in square footage, gross floor area, building facade, etc. shall meet the requirements of this code for the entire property. In addition, a 25 percent or more cumulative modification or replacement of parking spaces or parking lot area shall meet the requirements of this code.

C. General Provisions

1. Parking Required for Uses Not Listed

Required parking for uses not listed in this section shall be determined by the Planning and Zoning Administrator based on similar uses listed in this section.

2. Alternative Compliance

Upon written request by the applicant, the Planning and Zoning Commission may approve an alternative parking ratio.

a. Review Criteria: To approve an alternative plan, the Planning and Zoning Commission must find that the proposed alternative plan accomplishes the purpose of this section equally well or better than the standards of this section. The Planning and Zoning Commission shall consider:

i. The number of employees occupying the building or land use and the number of expected customers or clients.

ii. The availability of nearby parking (if any).

iii. Purchased or leased parking spaces in a municipal or private parking lot meeting the requirements of the Town; trip reduction programs (if any).

iv. Any other factors that may be unique to the applicant’s development request.

v. Continuity and convenient proximity for pedestrians between or among existing or future uses in the vicinity.

vi. Visual and aesthetic impact along the public street by placing parking lots to the rear or alongside of buildings, to the maximum extent feasible. Visual and aesthetic impact of the surrounding neighborhood.

vii. Impact on any facilities serving alternative modes of transportation.

viii. Impact on natural areas or features.

ix. Maintenance of mobility-impaired parking ratios.

3. Multiple Principal Uses: Where there are multiple principal uses in a development, the sum of the number of parking spaces required for the individual uses applies unless shared parking is approved per subsection D.3 of this section, Shared Parking.

4. Maintenance: The property owner shall be responsible for maintaining any vehicular use area in good condition and free of refuse and debris.

5. Fractional Amounts: When the final result of the calculation of required vehicle or bicycle spaces results in a fractional number, a fraction is adjusted to the next higher whole number.

6. Areas That May Not Be Used for Required Parking: Spaces in service bays, stacking areas, car wash bays at gasoline pumps or other hose locations, or those used for the storage or display of vehicles for sale or rent to the public are not considered off-street parking spaces and fire lanes. Off-street parking required by this Chapter shall not be located within any public right-of-way.

7. Building Permits: No building permit shall be issued until the applicant has presented satisfactory evidence that sufficient property to provide parking to serve the intended use as required in this Chapter is permanently available.

8. Control of Parking Lots: Property used for parking shall be under the same ownership as and contiguous to the generating use. When the property is not under the same ownership as the generating use or is not contiguous to the generating use, the following shall apply:

a. It shall be zoned for parking only or the same district classification as the generating use.

b. A recommendation for approval by the Planning and Zoning Administrator shall be obtained regarding the parking relationship to the generating use.

c. The owner(s) shall record restrictive covenants running with the land on the generating use and parking properties specifying that the generating use cannot continue if the parking use is discontinued. The form of said covenants shall be approved by the Town Attorney and may not be released without the written consent of the Town of Oro Valley.

((O)17-05 , 2017; (O)11-15 , 2011.)

D. Parking Lots – Required Number of Spaces for Type of Use

1. Residential Parking Requirements: Residential uses shall provide a minimum number of parking spaces as defined by the standards below. Any increase or decrease in parking shall be in accordance with subsection C.2 of this section.

a. Attached Dwellings: For each two (2) family and multi-family dwelling, there shall be parking spaces provided as indicated by the following table:

Table 27-13. Attached Dwelling Parking

Unit Number of Bedrooms/Dwelling Unit

Parking Spaces Per Dwelling

One or less

1.5

Two

1.75

Three

2.0

Four

2.5

Plus one (1) space per every four (4) units for guest parking.

b. Guest Parking: Off-street guest parking spaces in multi-family developments shall be distributed proportionally to effectively serve the dwelling units that they are intended to serve. Such parking shall not be located more than two hundred (200) feet from any dwelling unit that is intended to be served.

c. Single-Family Detached: For each single-family dwelling, there shall be at least two (2) parking spaces and two (2) guest spaces. Parking of any vehicle in the front yard of a lot shall be prohibited unless parked on a surface of asphalt, concrete, rock, or other similar inorganic material with a permanent border.

d. Mobile Homes: There shall be two (2) parking spaces per dwelling unit and one (1) space per four (4) units for guest parking.

e. Boarding Houses/Group Homes /Religious Quarters/Senior Care Facilities: One (1) per bedroom or bed plus one (1) for each four (4) bedrooms or beds for guest parking, plus two (2) for every three (3) employees. A minimum of fifty percent (50%) of the required parking for senior care facilities shall be covered parking. This requirement may be reduced or waived by Town Council when the applicant can demonstrate that the covered parking is not necessary to serve the expected needs of the residents.

i. Recreational Uses Neighborhood Parks: For each recreational use/park located in any district, there shall be three (3) parking spaces per acre of park area. All neighborhood parks of less than one (1) acre shall provide a minimum of three (3) parking spaces.

ii. Non-Residential Parking Requirements: Non-residential uses shall provide parking spaces as defined by the standards below. Any increase or decrease in parking shall be in accordance with subsection D.5 of this section.

2. The table below sets forth the number of allowed parking spaces based on the square footage of the gross leasable area and of the occupancy of specified uses.

Table 27-14. Allowed Parking Spaces

Use

Required Parking Sq. Ft.

Restaurants

  a. Convenience Use

15/1000

  b. Standard

10/1000

Bars, Taverns and Nightclubs

10/1000

Community Parks

5/acre

Commercial Recreational

  a. Limited Indoor Recreation

6/1000

  b. Outdoor

.3/person

  c. Bowling Alley

5/1000

Theaters

1/3 seats

General Retail

4/1000

Service Shop

4/1000

Shopping Center

5/1000

Medical Office

4.5/1000

Financial Services

3.5/1000

Grocery Store, Supermarket

6/1000

General Office

3/1000

Vehicle Servicing and Maintenance

5/1000

Repair Service

2/1000

Lodging Establishments

1/unit

Employees

1 per 2

Health Facilities

  a. Hospitals

1/bed

Schools, Places of Worship or Assembly

1 per 4 seats and 2 per 3 employees

Child Care Centers

1/1000 and 2 per 3 employees

Industrial Employee Parking

.75/employee

3. Shared Parking: When a mix of non-residential uses creates staggered peak periods of parking demand, shared parking calculations shall be made to reduce the total amount of required parking for retail, office, institutional and entertainment uses.

((O)15-16 , 2015.)

E. Mobility-Impaired Accessible Spaces

1. Design Standard:

a. Width eight (8) feet with a five (5) foot wide adjacent aisle for access to and from the side of a vehicle.

b. Other dimensions; same as those for standard vehicles.

c. The parking space and adjacent aisle shall have a slope less than 1:50 (2 percent).

2. Location: Mobility-impaired parking spaces shall be located as close as possible to the nearest accessible building entrance, using the shortest accessible route of travel possible. When practical, the accessible route of travel shall not cross lanes for vehicular traffic. When crossing vehicle traffic lanes is necessary, the route shall be designated and marked as a crosswalk.

3. Marking: Every mobility-impaired parking space shall be identified by a sign, centered between three (3) feet and five (5) feet above the parking surface, at the head of the parking space. The sign shall include the international symbol of accessibility and state RESERVED or equivalent language.

4. Number of Spaces: Each parking lot shall contain at least the minimum specified number of mobility-impaired spaces as provided in the table below.

Table 27-15. Number of Mobility Impaired Parking Spaces

Total Parking Spaces in Lot

Minimum Required Number of Accessible Spaces

1-25

1

26-50

2

51-75

3

76-100

4

101-150

5

151-200

6

201-300

7

301-400

8

401-500

9

501-1000

2% of total space

Over 1000

20 spaces plus 1 space for every 100 spaces or fraction thereof over 1000

5. Van Accessible Spaces: One (1) space per every eight (8) mobility impaired parking spaces or fraction thereof.

a. Width: Eight (8) feet with an eight (8) foot adjacent aisle.

b. Other dimensions; same as those for standard vehicles.

c. Height Clearance: 98 inches vertical clearance is required.

F. Bicycle Parking

1. Types:

a. Class I: Provides covered, secured bicycle parking that insures protection against direct sunlight and theft of the entire bicycle, its components, and accessories such as commuting bags, etc. Class I facilities include bicycle lockers, check-in facilities, monitored parking, restricted access parking or other means which provide the above level of security as approved by the Planning and Planning and Zoning Administrator.

b. Class II: Provides a stationary object that is permanently fixed to the ground or physically attached to a structure to which the operator can lock the bicycle, such as single or multiple bicycle racks. These facilities must be located in a highly visible area that is in close proximity to the primary entrance of the structure it serves, and disbursed conveniently throughout the development, not blocking pedestrian access.

2. Number Required: Provide bicycle parking spaces at the rate of:

a. One (1) bicycle parking space per twenty (20) required vehicular parking spaces, but in all cases shall provide a minimum of two (2) bicycle spaces, except gas stations having no convenience use (mini-mart).

b. All spaces shall be Class II spaces as defined in subsection F.2 of this section, Bicycle Parking Requirements, except Professional Offices, Retail Uses, Recreational Uses, Theaters, and Industrial Uses, shall provide ten percent (10%) percent of the required bicycle parking as Class I spaces.

c. The maximum number of required spaces shall be one hundred (100) bicycle-parking spaces.

d. Any increase or decrease in parking shall be in accordance with subsection D.3 of this section.

3. Credit for Bicycle Parking Facilities:

Performance Standards: The Planning and Planning and Zoning Administrator may authorize reductions to on-site parking requirements for all non-residential uses, for the provision of bicycle facilities, as follows:

a. One (1) vehicular space per four (4) Class I bicycle spaces.

b. Two (2) vehicular spaces per one (1) shower.

c. The number of vehicular spaces required shall not be reduced by more than five (5) percent.

((O)16-16 , 2016.)

G. On-Site Circulation

1. Access Drives:

a. Access drives shall provide adequate storage length to prevent stopped vehicles from obstructing entering vehicles or vehicles traveling along internal circulation roadways.

b. Entrances shall provide adequate turning radius for the design vehicle.

c. Curbs, walls, berms, landscaping, or other barriers shall be employed to prevent ingress or egress at any point other than the approved entrances and exits.

d. A minimum of 150 feet measured at the centerline shall separate any entrances or exits from the nearest intersecting street centerline.

e. Entrances and exit drives are limited to two (2) per 300 feet of frontage, with a minimum spacing of 150 feet between centerlines.

f. Cross corner sight visibility shall be provided in accordance with the Oro Valley Subdivision Street Standards.

g. The Town Engineer shall approve any deviation from these requirements.

2. Ring Roads:

Definition: A Ring Road is defined as a roadway encircling a commercial, office or industrial complex with no on street parking, frequent curb cuts to adjacent parking aisles, and parking internal to the ring road.

a. Ring roads shall be designed with 30 MPH design standards and signed at 15 MPH.

b. Ring roads shall be a minimum of 28 feet in width.

c. Sight visibility triangles for 30 MPH shall be a minimum along ring roads.

3. Perimeter Drive:

Definition: A Perimeter Drive is defined as a roadway next to a building or group of buildings inside a Ring Road. A Perimeter Drive may be used for pick-up and drop-off of passengers or cargo.

a. Perimeter drives shall have uninterrupted distances greater than 400 feet.

b. Perimeter drives shall be no wider than 28 feet with no parking, except as defined above.

c. Short radius curves are encouraged along the perimeter roads to limit speeds.

d. Sight visibility triangles for 20 MPH shall be a minimum along perimeter drives.

4. Parking Aisles:

a. Parking aisles shall not be designed to require or encourage vehicles to back into a street, pedestrian way, or alley in order to leave the parking lot or maneuver out of a parking space.

b. Parking aisles shall not be designed to carry more than 1000 vehicles per day.

c. Parking aisles shall not be longer than 300 feet without a break in circulation.

d. The preferred parking format is 45 degree parking on one-way parking aisles. Other parking configurations may be accepted provided it does not result in increased pedestrian-vehicular conflicts, and is consistent with Table 27-16.

Table 27-16. Off-Street Parking

MOTOR VEHICLE PARKING AREA DIMENSIONS

A

B

C

D

E

F

9.0'

12.0'

23.0'

28.0'

20°

9.0'

16.3'

12.0'

57.6'

44.6'

30°

9.0'

18.6'

12.0'

29.6'

49.2'

45°

9.0'

21.2'

13.0'

14.1'

55.4'

60°

9.0'

22.5'

18.0'

13.0'

63.0'

70°

9.0'

22.3'

19.0'

11.5'

63.6'

80°

9.0'

21.5'

24.0'

10.6'

67.0'

90°

9.0'

20.0'

24.0'

10.0'

64.0'

Elements

A. Parking Angle

B. Space Width

C. Space Depth

D. Aisle Width

E. Curb Length

F. Center to Center Width of Double Row and Aisle

Minimum 2 - way traffic aisle width: 24'

Minimum 1 - way traffic aisle width: 12'

Minimum 1 - way fire lane access aisle width: 20'

i. End islands shall be sufficiently large to assure adequate cross corner sight visibility with the intersecting access drive.

e. Passenger Drop-Off Points: Drop-off points, separated from street traffic lanes, ring roads, parking aisles, loading areas, access drives, or perimeter roads, and readily accessible without hazardous maneuvering, shall be provided in conjunction with the following uses: senior care facilities, hotels, motels, resorts, hospitals and clinics, educational facilities, libraries, and day care centers with fifty (50) or more students or children, religious facilities with one hundred (100) or more seats, transit terminals, park and ride lots, major recreational facilities, public buildings, financial services greater than five thousand (5,000) square feet of gross floor area, shopping centers and other office/commercial uses and restaurants. Passenger drop-off points for senior care facilities shall include a shade structure with bench seating.

f. Transit Stops: Any Commercial, Office, or Industrial development of a minimum one hundred thousand (100,000) square feet shall provide transit turn-outs. Transit turn-outs shall be centrally located for ease of access and shall be in sufficient numbers and designed in accordance with the standards established by the Town Engineer.

g. Carpools: Off street parking provided for all employment uses requiring eighty (80) or more spaces shall provide at least ten (10) percent of the total parking area as designated for use by car pools, and be clearly signed and managed to that end. Carpool parking shall be as close to the building as possible, without impeding visitor or mobility-impaired parking. Where car pool parking is provided by this Section, the required parking may be reduced by five (5) percent.

((O)15-16 , 2015.)

H. Design and Improvement Standards

1. Parking Lot Layout (Design)

a. Parking Space Dimension: Parking spaces shall be a minimum of nine (9) feet in width and twenty (20) feet in length. Parallel parking spaces shall be a minimum of eight (8) feet in width and twenty-three (23) feet in length. Motorcycle parking spaces, if provided, shall be in addition to any required parking and shall be a minimum of three (3) feet in width and ten (10) feet in length.

b. Parking Structures: Parking structures, including underground parking, are recognized as a means to conserve on-site open space and are encouraged as an alternative to developing all required parking as surface lots. As an incentive, allowable floor area ratios (FAR) may be increased up to ten percent (10%) for every one hundred (100) underground parking spaces or aboveground parking structures.

c. Circulation Routes: Parking lots shall provide well-defined circulation routes for vehicles, bicycles, and pedestrians. Layout and design shall anticipate the needs of users and provide continuity between vehicular circulation, parking, pedestrian and bicycle circulation.

d. Traffic Control Devices: Standard traffic control signs and devices shall be used to direct traffic, where necessary, within a parking lot and must incorporate traffic calming methods in the design. Parking lot sign standards shall be in accordance with Chapter 28.

e. Orientation: All parking lots shall include walkways that are located in places that are logical, safe, and convenient for pedestrians.

f. Landscape Islands: To the maximum extent feasible, landscaped islands with curbs shall be used to define parking lot entrances, the ends of all parking aisles and the location and pattern of primary internal access drives, and to provide pedestrian refuge areas and walkways. Every nine (9) parking spaces shall have a landscaped island. The dimensions of which shall be ten (10) feet outside edge to outside edge of curb and the curb shall be a minimum of eight (8) inches in width. The length shall be forty (40) feet outside edge to outside edge of curb. For single loaded parking the landscaped island shall be ten (10) feet outside edge to outside edge of curb and twenty (20) feet in length outside edge to outside edge. The provisions of Section 27.6, Landscape Conservation, shall apply.

g. Shopping Cart Bays: Parking areas where shopping carts are an integral part of the commercial business shall be designed to accommodate shopping cart storage. Cart storage spaces shall be integrated into the landscape areas within the parking area and shall be placed appropriately to accommodate the maximum number of parking spaces. Cart storage spaces shall be a minimum of four (4) feet wide and a maximum of nine (9) feet wide and the length shall be no longer than the depth of a parking stall. The minimum height shall be forty-five (45) inches measured from finished grade. Any lot for retail stores such as grocery or home improvements, and containing one hundred (100) or more parking spaces shall install at least one (1) shopping cart bay per eighty-five (85) spaces provided. The Planning and Zoning Administrator and Town Engineer may increase or decrease the number of shopping cart bays.

h. At a minimum shopping cart bays shall be constructed of opaque material that may consist of the following: landscaping, berming, and/or masonry block faced with the same material of the serving store. Such bays shall be maintained by the serving store or the Property Owners Association, if any, or the property owner/management company of the center. The Planning and Zoning Administrator shall have the right to inspect such bays and cite the serving store, Property Owners Association, or property owner/management company if such bays are not kept in good condition and properly maintained.

i. Points of Conflict: The lot layout shall specifically address the interrelation of pedestrian, vehicular and bicycle circulation in order to provide continuous and direct pedestrian access with a minimum of driveway and drive aisle crossings. Required treatment such as raised pedestrian crossings, forecourts and landings, special paving, signs, lights, and bollards shall be provided at significant points of conflict.

j. Lot Size/Scale: Large surface parking lots shall be visually and functionally segmented into several smaller lots according to the following standards:

i. Large parking lots shall be divided into smaller sections by landscape areas. Each section shall contain a maximum of two hundred (200) parking spaces.

ii. Parking bays shall extend no more than nine (9) parking spaces without an intervening tree landscape island or landscaped peninsula. The provisions of Section 27.6, Landscape Conservation, shall apply.

iii. No more than fifty percent (50%) of the off-street parking area be located in the front yard (see definition of front yard, Chapter 31).

k. Truck Traffic: All development that generates truck traffic that may adversely affect a neighborhood by creating noise, dust, or odor problems shall avoid or mitigate those impacts either through physical design or operational procedures and Section 27.8, Off-Street Loading.

2. Improvement Standards

All public and private parking areas except for residential uses permitted in the R-1 and R-4 Districts shall be improved and maintained to the following standards:

a. Slope and Grading: The finished grade of the parking lot shall be in accordance with the Town’s grading standards. Grading of a site shall benefit landscaped areas and conform to the requirements of the Town’s Grading Ordinance, Section 27.9. Below-grade or recessed parking lots are encouraged and may be required by the Planning and Zoning Administrator or the Town Engineer to provide additional screening from major thoroughfares or residential areas.

b. Drainage: In addition to the Town’s drainage requirements, drainage flow shall be considered a resource and be designed to benefit landscaped areas on the development site. Erosion control measures shall be designed and implemented to control drainage flow from impervious areas onto abutting soil surfaces.

c. Surfacing: All non-landscaped parking areas shall be paved with a durable asphalt, concrete, stone, tile, or brick surface, consistent with pavement design principles and engineered according to soil conditions and wheel-loads. Pedestrian use areas and crossings within parking areas shall be paved with tile, brick, concrete pavers, colored asphalt, patterned and colored concrete, or asphalt.

d. Barriers: Parking areas and spaces shall be provided with bumper barriers, wheel stops or wheel stop curbing designed to prevent parked vehicles from extending beyond the property lines, damaging adjacent landscaping, walls or buildings, or overhanging sidewalk areas. Wheel stops or wheel stop curbing shall be located three (3) feet from the front of the parking space. No barriers shall be required for head-to-head parking.

e. Pavement Marking: Parking spaces in paved parking areas shall be permanently marked with striping. Space lines shall be a minimum of four (4) inches wide, white paint or plastic, and extend for a minimum of ten (10) feet for interior lines. End lines shall extend the full length of the space.

f. Lighting: All parking areas shall comply with the Town of Oro Valley Outdoor Lighting Code, Section 27.5, Outdoor Lighting.