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A. Purpose

This section establishes requirements for vehicle and bicycle parking consistent with the objectives of the general plan and a balanced transportation system to promote public safety and environmental quality. These regulations are intended to:

1. Ensure sufficient off-street vehicle and bicycle parking facilities by establishing parking requirements for land uses.

2. Reduce the visual impact of mass “seas of parking” by distributing spaces around clusters of buildings.

3. Reduce excessive off-street parking by encouraging the shared use of vehicular use areas.

4. Promote pedestrian safety by separating vehicular use areas from pedestrian areas.

5. Encourage safe, convenient, and efficient design of parking spaces, circulation, and access areas.

6. Improve air quality by requiring paving of vehicular use areas.

7. Promote the enhancement of the community identity and the appearance of Town roadways and development areas.

8. The Town of Oro Valley, in keeping with the Federal Clean Air Act, wishes to encourage the use of alternative transportation modes such as the bicycle. Reducing the number of vehicular parking spaces in favor of bicycle parking spaces will help attain the standards of the Federal Clean Air Act, reduce impervious surfaces, and save on land and development costs.

((O)22-01 , 2022.)

B. Applicability

The provisions of this section apply to:

1. New Development

2. New Uses Replacing Existing Uses

Whenever the use of an existing development is changed to a new use which requires more parking spaces under this section than were required for the prior use, additional parking spaces shall be provided in accordance with the requirements of this section. No occupancy permit shall be issued until the Planning and Zoning Administrator has approved the parking requirements for the new use.

3. Expansions

All projects that propose twenty-five percent (25%) or more cumulative addition or structural modifications such as changes in square footage, gross floor area, building facade, etc., shall meet the requirements of this code for the entire property. In addition, a twenty-five percent (25%) or more cumulative modification or replacement of parking spaces or parking lot area shall meet the requirements of this code.

((O)22-01 , 2022.)

C. General Provisions

1. Parking Required for Uses Not Listed

Required parking for uses not listed in this section shall be determined by the Planning and Zoning Administrator based on similar uses listed in this section.

2. Shared Parking

When a mix of nonresidential uses creates staggered peak periods of parking demand, shared parking calculations shall be made to reduce the total amount of required parking for retail, office, institutional and entertainment uses. Total required parking is calculated as the number of parking spaces identified in Table 27-14 less shared parking.

3. Alternative Compliance

When total proposed parking counts result in increases or decreases to required parking, an alternative parking ratio may be approved, subject to the following:

a. Review Criteria: For an alternative parking ratio to be approved, the proposed alternative plan must accomplish the purpose of this section equally well or better than the standards of this section. Specific considerations include, but are not limited to, the following:

i. The number of employees occupying the building or land use and the number of expected customers or clients.

ii. The availability of nearby parking (if any).

iii. Purchased or leased parking spaces in a municipal or private parking lot meeting the requirements of the Town; trip reduction programs (if any).

iv. Any other factors that may be unique to the applicant’s development request.

v. Continuity and convenient proximity for pedestrians between or among existing or future uses in the vicinity.

vi. Visual and aesthetic impact along the public street by placing parking lots to the rear or alongside of buildings, to the maximum extent feasible. Visual and aesthetic impact of the surrounding neighborhood.

vii. Convenient access to alternative modes of transport.

viii. Impact on any facilities serving alternative modes of transportation.

ix. Impact on natural areas or features.

x. Maintenance of mobility-impaired parking ratios.

b. Increases of twenty percent (20%) or less and reductions of twenty percent (20%) or less to required parking spaces in Table 27-14 may be approved by the Planning and Zoning Administrator.

c. Increases of more than twenty percent (20%) and reductions of more than twenty percent (20%) to required parking spaces in Table 27-14 requires Planning and Zoning Commission approval unless otherwise enabled by Section 24.9.C.3.

3. Where there are multiple uses in a development, the sum of the number of parking spaces required for the individual uses applies unless shared parking is approved per subsection C.2 of this section.

4. Maintenance: The property owner shall be responsible for maintaining any vehicular use area in good condition and free of refuse, weeds and debris.

5. Fractional Amounts: When the final result of the calculation of required vehicle or bicycle spaces results in a fractional number, a fraction is adjusted to the next higher whole number.

6. Areas That May Not Be Used for Required Parking: Spaces in service bays, stacking areas, car wash bays, gasoline pumps or other hose locations, fire lanes or those used for the storage or display of vehicles for sale or rent to the public are not considered off-street parking spaces.

7. Off-street parking required by this chapter shall not be located within any public right-of-way, unless approved by the Town Engineer and Planning and Zoning Administrator.

8. Building Permits: No building permit shall be issued until the applicant has presented satisfactory evidence that sufficient property to provide parking to serve the intended use as required in this chapter is permanently available.

9. Control of Parking Lots: Property used for parking shall be under the same ownership as and contiguous to the generating use. When the property is not under the same ownership as the generating use or is not contiguous to the generating use, the following shall apply:

a. It shall be zoned for parking only or the same district classification as the generating use.

b. A recommendation for approval by the Planning and Zoning Administrator shall be obtained regarding the parking relationship to the generating use.

c. The owner(s) shall record restrictive covenants running with the land on the generating use and parking properties specifying that the generating use cannot continue if the parking use is discontinued.

((O)22-01 , 2022; (O)17-05 , 2017; (O)11-15 , 2011.)

D. Parking Lots – Required Number of Spaces for Type of Use

1. Residential Parking Requirements: Residential uses shall provide a minimum number of parking spaces as defined by the standards below. Any increase or decrease in parking shall be in accordance with subsection C.2 of this section.

a. Attached Dwellings: For each two (2) family and multifamily dwelling, there shall be parking spaces provided as indicated by the following table:

Table 27-13. Attached Dwelling Parking

Unit Number of Bedrooms/Dwelling Unit

Parking Spaces per Dwelling

One or less

1.5

Two

1.75

Three

2.0

Four

2.5

Plus one (1) space per every four (4) units for guest parking.

b. Guest Parking: Off-street guest parking spaces in multifamily developments shall be distributed proportionally to effectively serve the dwelling units that they are intended to serve. Such parking shall not be located more than two hundred (200) feet from any dwelling unit that is intended to be served.

c. Single-Family Detached: For each single-family dwelling, there shall be at least two (2) parking spaces and two (2) guest spaces. Parking of any vehicle in the front yard of a lot shall be prohibited unless parked on a surface of asphalt, concrete, rock, or other similar inorganic material with a permanent border.

d. Mobile Homes: There shall be two (2) parking spaces per dwelling unit and one (1) space per four (4) units for guest parking.

2. Nonresidential Parking Requirements: The table below sets forth the number of required parking spaces for nonresidential uses within the Town.

Table 27-14. Required Parking Spaces

Permitted Use

Parking Spaces/Square Feet (Unless Otherwise Noted)

Accessory buildings and uses

Not applicable

Commercial stables

0.75/employee and 0.75/horse stall

Farms and ranches

1 per 2 employees

Marketing of products raised on the premises

4/1,000

Plant nursery

4/1,000

Bars

20/1,000

Distillery

0.75/employee and 20/1,000 for bar

Entertainment at bars or restaurants

Not applicable

Microbrewery

0.75/employee and 20/1,000 for bar

Mobile food units, including food trucks

Not applicable

Restaurant

10/1,000

Restaurant with drive-in/drive-thru

See Table 27-15

Food processing, artisanal

0.75/employee and 4/1,000 for public use areas

Food processing, large scale

0.75/employee and 4/1,000 for public use areas

Manufacturing services, heavy

0.75/employee

Manufacturing services, light

0.75/employee

Warehousing, heavy

0.75/employee

Warehousing, light

0.75/employee

Communication studios

3/1,000

Offices

3/1,000

Research and development

3/1,000

Convenience market

8/1,000

Drive-thru uses

See Table 27-15

General retail

4/1,000

Grocery store

5/1,000

Marijuana establishment

4/1,000

Wholesaling

4/1,000

Animal services

4.5/1,000

Commercial or fine arts studio

3/1,000

Daycare

0.75/employee and 3/1,000

Drive-thru uses, not including banks

See Table 27-15

Financial services

3.5/1,000

Funeral services

1 per 4 seats and 2 per 3 employees

Household services

0.75/employee and 4/1,000 for public use areas

Medical services

4.5/1,000

Personal services

0.75/employee and 4/1,000 for public use areas

Private clubs without entertainment

10/1,000

Private clubs with entertainment

10/1,000

Self storage

1 per 50 units

Senior care facility

See Table 27-16

Sexually oriented businesses

4/1,000

Technical services

4/1,000

Theater

1/3 seats

Gas stations

8/1,000

Parts store

0.75/employee and 4/1,000 for public use areas

Rental establishments, less than 10 vehicles

0.75/employee and 1 per 10 vehicles stored on premises

Rental establishments, over 10 vehicles

0.75/employee and 1 per 10 vehicles stored on premises

Rental establishments, moving services

0.75/employee and 1 per 10 vehicles stored on premises

Vehicle repair facilities

5/1,000

Vehicle sales

3/1,000

Vehicle storage facility, including parking garage

0.75/employee and 1 per 10 vehicles stored on premises

Vehicle washes/detailing

0.75/employee

Boarding house or lodging house

1/unit

Guest ranches

1/unit

Hotels/motels

0.75/employee and 1/unit

Resorts

0.75/employee and 1/unit

Short-term rental properties

Applicable residential standards apply

Arts and cultural use

3/1,000

Cemetery

Offices: cemetery offices shall be parked as an office use

Grounds: 0.75 spaces per nonoffice employee shall be provided and internal roadways or access drives shall accommodate parallel parking

Fire stations and rescue facilities, private

3/1,000 of office space

General aviation

0.75/employee and 1/1,000 for public use areas

Golf course

Parking for golf courses shall be provided through a shared parking analysis including all associated uses

Golf driving range or miniature golf, stand alone

2 per bay

Government services

1 per 4 seats and 2 per 3 employees

Religious institutions

1 per 4 seats and 2 per 3 employees

Schools, private

1 per 4 seats and 2 per 3 employees

Schools, public including charter schools

None required

Utilities, privately owned

0.75/employee

Utility poles and above ground wires, new

Not applicable

Buildings and facilities, not-for-profit community service organizations, such as Boys & Girls Clubs or YMCA

4/1,000

Buildings and facilities, private, including fitness centers or health spas

4.5/1,000

Apartments

See Table 27-13

Assisted living home

See Table 27-16

Dwelling units, single-family

2 parking and 2 guest spaces

Dwelling units, site-delivered single- family

2 parking and 2 guest spaces; or in SDH-6: 2 parking spaces per dwelling unit and 1 space per 4 dwelling units for guest parking

Dwelling units, attached, including condominium, patio home or townhouse

See Table 27-13

Home occupations

Existing parking provided on property shall be used to accommodate vehicles related to the home business. Additional regulations provided in Section 25.2.E.3.e.

Model homes, including temporary real estate office

Applicable residential standards apply

Antennas

None required

Recreation area (100 or fewer homes)

1 parking space for every 20 dwelling units or portion thereof

Recreation area (greater than 100 homes)

1 additional parking space for every 40 dwelling units or portion thereof over 100

Communication facilities, major

1 space per facility

Communication facilities, minor

None required

Table 27-15. Required Parking Spaces for Drive-Thru Uses

Drive-Thru Uses Table

Drive-Thru Use

Parking Spaces/Square Feet

Additional Requirements

Food

15/1,000

Sections 25.1.B.8 and 27.6.D.5

Beverage

9/1,000

Sections 25.1.B.8 and 27.6.D.5

Financial

3.5/1,000

Sections 25.1.B.8 and 27.6.D.5

Table 27-16. Required Parking Spaces for Senior Care Uses

Senior Care Facility Table

Facility Type

Parking Ratio

Independent living

0.75/unit

Assisted living

0.5/bed, plus 0.75 per employee

Assisted living home

1 per bedroom or bed, plus 1 for each 4 bedrooms or beds for guest parking, plus 2 for every 3 employees, minimum 50% covered parking

Memory/nurse care

0.5/bed, plus 0.75 per employee

((O)22-01 , 2022; (O)15-16 , 2015.)

E. Mobility-Impaired Accessible Spaces

Mobility-impaired accessible spaces shall be in conformance with all federal, state and local requirements, including, but not limited to, standards for the size, number required, location and marking for accessible parking.

((O)22-01 , 2022.)

F. Bicycle Parking

1. Types:

a. Class I: Provides covered, secured bicycle parking that ensures protection against direct sunlight and theft of the entire bicycle, its components, and accessories such as commuting bags, etc. Class I facilities include bicycle lockers, check-in facilities, monitored parking, restricted access parking or other means which provide the above level of security as approved by the Planning and Zoning Administrator.

b. Class II: Provides a stationary object that is permanently fixed to the ground or physically attached to a structure to which the operator can lock the bicycle, such as single or multiple bicycle racks. These facilities must be located in a highly visible area that is in close proximity to the primary entrance of the structure it serves, distributed conveniently throughout the development and not blocking pedestrian access.

2. Number Required: Provide bicycle parking spaces at the rate of:

a. One (1) bicycle parking space per twenty (20) required vehicular parking spaces, but in all cases shall provide a minimum of two (2) bicycle spaces, except gas stations having no convenience use (mini-mart).

b. All spaces shall be Class II spaces as defined in subsection F.1.b of this section, except multifamily residential, professional offices, retail uses, recreational uses, theaters, and industrial uses shall provide ten percent (10%) of the required bicycle parking as Class I spaces.

c. The maximum number of required spaces shall be one hundred (100) bicycle parking spaces.

3. Credit for Bicycle Parking Facilities:

The Planning and Zoning Administrator may authorize reductions to on-site parking requirements for all nonresidential uses, for the provision of bicycle facilities, as follows:

a. One (1) vehicular space per four (4) Class I bicycle spaces.

b. Two (2) vehicular spaces per one (1) shower.

((O)22-01 , 2022; (O)16-16 , 2016.)

G. On-Site Circulation

1. Access Drives:

a. Access drives shall provide adequate storage length to prevent stopped vehicles from obstructing entering vehicles or vehicles traveling along internal circulation roadways.

b. Entrances shall provide an adequate turning radius for the design vehicle.

c. Curbs, walls, berms, landscaping, or other barriers shall be employed to prevent ingress or egress at any point other than the approved entrances and exits.

d. A minimum of 150 feet measured at the centerline shall separate any entrances or exits from the nearest intersecting street centerline.

e. Repealed by (O)22-01.

f. Cross corner sight visibility shall be provided in accordance with the Oro Valley Subdivision Street Standards.

g. The Town Engineer shall approve any deviation from these requirements.

2. Ring Roads:

a. Ring roads shall be designed with thirty (30) MPH design standards and signed at fifteen (15) MPH.

b. Ring roads shall be a minimum of twenty-eight (28) feet in width.

c. Sight visibility triangles for thirty (30) MPH shall be a minimum along ring roads.

d. Ring roads are required in all shopping centers generating more than five thousand (5,000) average daily trips (ADT).

e. The Town Engineer shall approve any deviation from these requirements.

3. Perimeter Drive:

a. Perimeter drives shall not have uninterrupted distances greater than four hundred (400) feet.

b. Perimeter drives shall be no wider than twenty-eight (28) feet with no parking, except as defined above.

c. Short radius curves are encouraged along the perimeter roads to limit speeds.

d. Sight visibility triangles for twenty (20) MPH shall be a minimum along perimeter drives.

e. Perimeter drives shall be designed to discourage through traffic in shopping centers with access drives and ring roads.

4. Parking Aisles:

a. Parking aisles shall not be designed that require vehicles to back into a street, ring road, perimeter drive, pedestrian way, or alley in order to leave the parking lot or maneuver out of a parking space.

b. Repealed by (O)22-01.

c. Parking aisles shall not be longer than three hundred (300) feet without a break in circulation.

d. The preferred parking format is forty-five (45) degree parking on one (1) way parking aisles. Other parking configurations may be accepted provided it does not result in increased pedestrian-vehicular conflicts, and is consistent with Table 27-16A.

Table 27-16A. Off-Street Parking

MOTOR VEHICLE PARKING AREA DIMENSIONS

A

B

C

D

E

F

9.0'

12.0'

23.0'

28.0'

20°

9.0'

16.3'

12.0'

57.6'

44.6'

30°

9.0'

18.6'

12.0'

29.6'

49.2'

45°

9.0'

21.2'

13.0'

14.1'

55.4'

60°

9.0'

22.5'

18.0'

13.0'

63.0'

70°

9.0'

22.3'

19.0'

11.5'

63.6'

80°

9.0'

21.5'

24.0'

10.6'

67.0'

90°

9.0'

20.0'

24.0'

10.0'

64.0'

Elements:

A. Parking Angle

B. Space Width

C. Space Depth

D. Aisle Width

E. Curb Length

F. Center to Center Width of Double Row and Aisle

Minimum two-way traffic aisle width: 24'

Minimum one-way traffic aisle width: 12'

Minimum one-way fire lane access aisle width: 20'

i. End islands shall be sufficiently large to assure adequate cross corner sight visibility with the intersecting access drive.

e. Passenger Drop-Off Points: Drop-off points, separated from street traffic lanes, ring roads, parking aisles, loading areas, access drives, or perimeter roads, and readily accessible without hazardous maneuvering, shall be provided in conjunction with the following uses: senior care facilities, hotels, motels, resorts, hospitals and clinics, educational facilities, libraries, and day care centers with fifty (50) or more students or children, religious facilities with one hundred (100) or more seats, transit terminals, park and ride lots, major recreational facilities, public buildings, shopping centers and other office/commercial uses and restaurants. Passenger drop-off points for senior care facilities shall include a shade structure with bench seating.

f. Transit Stops: Any commercial, office, or industrial development one hundred thousand (100,000) square feet in size or greater shall provide transit stops in accordance with standards established by the Town Engineer.

g. Transit stops shall be centrally located for ease of access and shall be in sufficient numbers to serve the needs of area users. In areas where multiple uses would require a stop, and one has been provided to serve the area, the Town Engineer may waive this requirement.

h. Carpools: Off-street parking provided for all employment uses requiring eighty (80) or more spaces shall provide at least ten percent (10%) of the total parking area as designated for use by carpools, and be clearly signed and managed to that end. Carpool parking shall be as close to the building as possible, without impeding visitor or mobility-impaired parking. Where carpool parking is provided by this section, the required parking may be reduced by five percent (5%).

((O)22-01 , 2022; (O)15-16 , 2015.)

H. Design and Improvement Standards

1. Parking Lot Layout (Design)

a. The Town Engineer and Planning and Zoning Administrator may approve the conversion of off-street parking within parking lots to other alternative uses (e.g., outdoor dining, farmers markets, etc.) as described below:

i. Temporary conversion for a continuous period of time requires a special use permit in accordance with Section 25.3.A.

ii. Intermittent conversion for periods of time that do not impact peak parking periods for other uses within the center.

iii. Permanent conversion requires a revision to the approved site and landscape plans.

b. Review criteria: For the conversion of any off-street parking area to be approved, the plan must accomplish the purpose of this section. Specific considerations include, but are not limited to, the following:

i. Adequate parking is available for all uses following the conversion.

ii. Traffic and circulation (both vehicular and pedestrian) within the center are not significantly impacted as determined by the Town Engineer and Planning and Zoning Administrator.

c. Parking Space Dimension:

i. Standard parking spaces shall be a minimum of nine (9) feet in width and twenty (20) feet in length.

ii. Parallel parking spaces shall be a minimum of eight (8) feet in width and twenty-three (23) feet in length.

iii. Motorcycle parking spaces, if provided, shall be in addition to any required parking and shall be a minimum of three (3) feet in width and ten (10) feet in length.

d. Parking Structures: Parking structures, including underground parking, are recognized as a means to conserve on-site open space and are encouraged as an alternative to developing all required parking as surface lots. As an incentive, allowable floor area ratios (FAR) may be increased up to ten percent (10%) for every one hundred (100) underground parking spaces or aboveground parking structures.

e. Circulation Routes: Parking lots shall provide well-defined circulation routes for vehicles, bicycles, and pedestrians. Layout and design shall anticipate the needs of users and provide continuity between vehicular circulation, parking, pedestrian and bicycle circulation.

f. Traffic Control Devices: Standard traffic control signs and devices shall be used to direct traffic, where necessary, within a parking lot and must incorporate traffic calming methods in the design. Parking lot sign standards shall be in accordance with Chapter 28.

g. Orientation: All parking lots shall include walkways that are located in places that are logical, safe, and convenient for pedestrians.

h. Landscape Islands: Islands with curbs shall be used to define parking lot entrances, the ends of all parking aisles and the location and pattern of primary internal access drives, and to provide pedestrian refuge areas and walkways.

i. Every nine (9) parking spaces shall have a landscaped island, the dimensions of which shall be ten (10) feet outside edge to outside edge of curb and the curb shall be a minimum of eight (8) inches in width. The length shall be forty (40) feet outside edge to outside edge of curb. For single-loaded parking the landscaped island shall be ten (10) feet outside edge to outside edge of curb and twenty (20) feet in length outside edge to outside edge. The provisions of Section 27.6, Landscape Conservation, shall apply.

j. Shopping Cart Bays: Parking areas where shopping carts are an integral part of the commercial business shall be designed to accommodate shopping cart storage. Cart storage spaces shall be integrated into the landscape areas within the parking area and shall be placed appropriately to accommodate the maximum number of parking spaces. Cart storage spaces shall be a minimum of four (4) feet wide and a maximum of nine (9) feet wide and the length shall be no longer than the depth of a parking stall. The minimum height shall be forty-five (45) inches measured from finished grade. Any lot for retail stores such as grocery or home improvements, and containing one hundred (100) or more parking spaces, shall install at least one (1) shopping cart bay per eighty-five (85) spaces provided. The Planning and Zoning Administrator and Town Engineer may increase or decrease the number of shopping cart bays.

k. At a minimum shopping cart bays shall be constructed of opaque material that may consist of the following: landscaping, berming, and/or masonry block faced with the same material of the serving store. Such bays shall be maintained by the serving store or the property owners’ association, if any, or the property owner/management company of the center. The Planning and Zoning Administrator shall have the right to inspect such bays and cite the serving store, property owners’ association, or property owner/management company if such bays are not kept in good condition and properly maintained.

l. Points of Conflict: The lot layout shall specifically address the interrelation of pedestrian, vehicular and bicycle circulation in order to provide continuous and direct pedestrian access with a minimum of driveway and drive aisle crossings. Required treatment such as raised pedestrian crossings, forecourts and landings, special paving, signs, lights, and bollards shall be provided at significant points of conflict.

m. Lot Size/Scale: Large surface parking lots shall be visually and functionally segmented into several smaller lots according to the following standards:

i. Large parking lots shall be divided into smaller sections by landscape areas. Each section shall contain a maximum of two hundred (200) parking spaces.

ii. Parking bays shall extend no more than nine (9) parking spaces without an intervening tree landscape island or landscaped peninsula. The provisions of Section 27.6, Landscape Conservation, shall apply.

iii. No more than fifty percent (50%) of the off-street parking area shall be located in the “front yard” (see definition of front yard, Chapter 31).

n. Truck Traffic: All development that generates truck traffic that may adversely affect a neighborhood by creating noise, dust, or odor problems shall avoid or mitigate those impacts either through physical design or operational procedures and Section 27.8, Off-Street Loading.

o. Refuse: All parking lots shall include sufficient refuse collection areas to serve the intended uses, subject to the following:

i. All aspects of refuse collection, including grease collection containers, must be fully enclosed in accordance with Section 27.6.C.5.b.xii.

ii. Refuse locations are subject to the building setback of the zoning district when adjacent to any property used, zoned, or designated by the General Plan for residential purposes.

iii. Refuse pick-up is only permitted from 6:00 a.m. to 7:00 p.m.

2. Improvement Standards

All public and private parking areas except for residential uses permitted in the R-1 and R-4 Districts shall be improved and maintained to the following standards:

a. Slope and Grading: The finished grade of the parking lot shall be in accordance with the Town’s grading standards. Grading of a site shall benefit landscaped areas in accordance with Section 27.6.C.4 and conform to the requirements of the Town’s grading ordinance, Section 27.9. Below-grade or recessed parking lots are encouraged and may be required by the Planning and Zoning Administrator or the Town Engineer to provide additional screening from major thoroughfares or residential areas.

b. Drainage: In addition to the Town’s drainage requirements, drainage flow shall be considered a resource and be designed to benefit landscaped areas on the development site in accordance with Section 27.6.C.4. Erosion control measures shall be designed and implemented to control drainage flow from impervious areas onto abutting soil surfaces.

c. Surfacing: All nonlandscaped parking areas shall be paved with a durable asphalt, concrete, stone, tile, or brick surface, consistent with pavement design principles and engineered according to soil conditions and wheel-loads. Pedestrian use areas and crossings within parking areas shall be paved with tile, brick, concrete pavers, colored asphalt, patterned and colored concrete, or asphalt.

d. Barriers: Parking areas and spaces shall be provided with bumper barriers, wheel stops or wheel stop curbing designed to prevent parked vehicles from extending beyond the property lines, damaging adjacent landscaping, walls or buildings, or overhanging sidewalk areas. Wheel stops or wheel stop curbing shall be located three (3) feet from the front of the parking space. No barriers shall be required for head-to-head parking.

e. Pavement Marking: Parking spaces in paved parking areas shall be permanently marked with striping. Space lines shall be a minimum of four (4) inches wide, white paint or plastic, and extend for a minimum of ten (10) feet for interior lines. End lines shall extend the full length of the space.

f. Lighting: All parking areas shall comply with the Town of Oro Valley Outdoor Lighting Code, Section 27.5, Outdoor Lighting.

((O)22-01 , 2022.)